I. Existing standard systems and major standards
As a traditional manual product, the standardization of fireworks and firecrackers starts relatively late, the starting point is low, and the technology content of the industry is not high. In 1982, the Ministry of Light Industry developed the standards for fireworks and firecrackers (industry). In 1989, under the lead organization of the National Standardization Technical Committee for Fireworks and Firecrackers, the standard was approved as the national standard GB 10631-1989 "Safety and Quality of Firecrackers and Firecrackers."
In 2004, according to the status and development needs of fireworks and firecrackers, the standard was revised a lot. Since the issuance of Document No. 53 of the General Office of the State Council in 2010, the National Technical Committee for Standardization of Fireworks and Firecrackers has been repeatedly demonstrated, researched, tested and coordinated for more than two years. The basic standard for fireworks and firecrackers is GB 10631-2013 “Fireworks and Firecrackers Safety and Quality” in 2013. It was formally implemented on March 1st, replacing the previous GB10631-2004 "Fireworks and Firecracker Safety and Quality" standard. This standard is one of the four basic standards for the standard system of fireworks and firecrackers in China, that is, the basic standard of the product standard system.
In 1989, in order to protect the safety production of fireworks and firecrackers, effectively prevent, curb and reduce the occurrence of fireworks and fire accidents, and promote the safe and healthy development of the industry, the national standard GB 11652-1989 "Fireworks and Firecrackers Labor Safety Technical Regulations" came into being. In 2007, the Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China issued the task of revising GB 11652-1989 “Safety and Technical Regulations for Fireworks and Firecrackers”. On September 1, 2012, the standard was formally implemented and changed its name to GB 11652-2012 "Fireworks and Firecrackers Operation Safety Technical Regulations." This standard has now become the fourth of the four basic standards for the fireworks and firecrackers standard system in China, namely, the basic standard of the safety production (operating) standard system.
In 1992, GB 50161-1992 "Fireworks Firecracker Factory Design Safety Specification" was formally promulgated and implemented. In 2009, in order to further standardize the design and construction of fireworks and firecracker projects and ensure the safe production and operation of enterprises, the standard was revised to a large extent and was renamed GB 50161-2009 "Fireworks and Firecrackers Engineering Design Safety Specification". Formally implemented since July 1, 2010. This standard has now become the third of the four basic standards for the fireworks and firecrackers standard system in China, that is, the basic standards for the engineering design (construction) system.
In 1998, China's first industry standard GA 183-1998 on "Fireworks and Firecrackers for Fireworks" was published. In 2005, GA 183-2005 “Fireworks Fire Safety Specification for Fireworks Evening” was shaped according to the conditions of fireworks and the development requirements in China.
In 2009, the standard officially rose to the national standard GB 24284-2009 “Large Fireworks Discharge Safety Technical Regulations”. In order to further ensure the safety of fireworks and firecrackers, the National Technical Committee of Standardization for Firecrackers and Firecrackers began to formulate relevant safety technical regulations (standards) for general fireworks discharge. This standard has now become the fourth of the four basic standards for fireworks and firecrackers in China. It is the basic standard for the fireworks discharge system.
Under the guidance of the above four basic standards, the existing standards system for fireworks and firecrackers in China has been derived, including four standard subsystems: product standards, safety production (operating), engineering design (construction), and fireworks discharge. Quality, raw and auxiliary materials, production and management, business management, storage and transportation, equipment and facilities, and product discharge.
Each standard sub-system is divided into three levels: basic standards, common standards and special standards. Specifically, the basic standard layer in the product standard system includes four categories of terms: terminology, packaging, marking, and hierarchical classification. The general standard layer includes general standards for product quality, general standards for raw and auxiliary materials, and general standards for inspection methods. The special standard layer of quality common standards includes professional discharge and personal discharge product quality standards; the basic standard layer of the safety production (operating) system includes production operations, transportation and storage, equipment and facilities, and production (management) management.
II. Problems in the Standardization Reform and the Fireworks and Firecrackers Standard System
In March 2015, the State Council issued the "Deepening the Reform Plan for Standardization Work." Its overall goal is to establish a new standard system for the coordinated development of standards formulated by the government and independently developed by the market, coordinated and matched, and a new standard system, with sound and unified coordination, efficient operation, and government The standardized management system of the market co-government forms a standardized work pattern of government guidance, market-driven, social participation, and coordinated advancement, effectively supporting the construction of a unified market system, making standards a “hard constraint” on quality, and promoting China’s economy toward high-end Level. The Action Plan (2015-2016) for Implementing the "Resolution Plan for Deepening Standardization Work" issued in August 2015 put forward 14 tasks to ensure that standardized reforms are put in place:
(1) Carry out mandatory standard cleanup assessment;
(2) Conduct review and revision of recommended standards;
(3) Optimize the recommended standard revision process;
(4) carry out group standard pilot;
(5) Conducting self-declaration disclosure and supervision systems for enterprise products and service standards;
(6) Strengthen the implementation and supervision of standards;
(7) Improve the management of standardized technical committees;
(8) Improve the standard of internationalization;
(9) Promoting Chinese standards to "go global";
(10) Strengthen the information construction;
(11) Strengthen publicity efforts;
(12) Strengthen the protection of standardization work funds;
(13) Strengthen the standardization of the rule of law;
(14) Establish a standardized coordination and coordination mechanism of the State Council.
1. Conclusions on the reform of standardization of fireworks and firecrackers
With the continuous deepening of reforms, the mandatory national standards under the jurisdiction of SAC/TC 149 will comb through the three categories of products, raw and auxiliary materials, and discharge equipment to integrate the standards, and eventually integrate the mandatory national standards into three standards - "Fireworks "Firecracker Safety and Quality", "Safety and Quality of Firecrackers and Firecrackers" and "Safety and Quality of Raw and Auxiliary Materials for Fireworks and Firecrackers". Others will be converted into national recommended standards.
The centralized recommendation of national standards and industry standards is based on a combination of review and correspondence review. The conclusions of the review are as follows: of the 33 current recommended national standards, 2 continue to be valid, 1 subject to abolition, and 1 that are directly abolished. Items, one item of coordination, 28 items that need to be revised. Among them, the revised standards will be standard integration, streamlining the number of standards. The recommended industry standards will also be coordinated with AQ standards into national recommended standards.
In addition, the conclusions of GB 11652-2012 "Fireworks and Firecrackers Operational Safety Technical Regulations", GB 50161-2009 "Fireworks and Firecrackers Engineering Design Safety Regulations", and GB 24284-2009 "Large Fireworks Discharge Safety Technical Regulations" are all after the mandatory standard streamlining and integration. Revision.
2. Problems with the current standards system
At present, the standard system for fireworks and firecrackers is in an era of old and new. The old standard system still applies, and the new standard system needs to be introduced. The main problems that exist are:
First, mandatory national standards urgently need to be revised and compulsory standard planning projects urgently need to turn to recommended standards for project approval. Current GB 10631-2013 "Fireworks and Firecrackers Safety and Quality", GB 11652-2012 "Fireworks and Firecrackers Operation Safety Technical Regulations", GB 50161-2009 "Fireworks and Firecrackers Engineering Design Safety Regulations", GB 24284-2009 "Large Fireworks Fire Safety Technical Regulations "The four major basic standards have not been adapted to the development of the industry and need to be revised as soon as possible;
Second, the introduction of some national policies has caused many standard clauses to be impractical. For example, the state’s control over fireworks companies has led to the current inapplicability of small fireworks products standards and the urgent need to re-establish relevant standards for such products. Third, exports of fireworks and firecrackers currently need to meet domestic standards, but domestic standards are inconsistent with those of exporting countries. Fourth, it is urgent to formulate and promulgate the recommended national standards that are supported by strong standards, thus forming a complete system together with mandatory standards.
III. Establishment of standards and standards for fireworks and firecrackers in the new era
The new "Standardization Law of the People's Republic of China" came into effect on January 1, 2018. The main highlights of the newly revised standardization law include the unified management of mandatory standards, the granting of corporate standard legal status, and the establishment of corporate products and service standards. Supervision system, etc.
1. Establishment of a new standard system for fireworks and firecrackers in the new era
With the completion of the national standardization reform and the implementation of the new standardization law, the existing standard system of fireworks needs to be adjusted in accordance with the reformed system. The domestic fireworks and firecrackers standard system will be based on the product quality standard system (National Fireworks and Firecrackers Standardization Technical Committee SAC/TC 149 centralized) and the safety production standard system (National Safety Production Standardization Technical Committee Technical Committee of Fireworks and Firecrackers SAC/TC 288/SC4). The four major systems of the transportation standard system (transportation department) and the discharge standard system (the Ministry of Public Security Social Public Safety Application Fundamental Standardization Technical Committee) have been improved and standards have been revised.
At the same time, on the basis of the revision of mandatory national standards, the formulation and amendment of the supporting recommended standards will be improved. Secondly, industry standards and local standards also need to be well-supported. Some industry standards that are urgently needed to be revised and local standards that are urgently needed to be formulated should be put on the agenda as soon as possible. In addition, industry associations should also be encouraged to formulate more group standards and help companies set corporate standards as a complement and complement to the entire standard system. In formulating standards, it is also necessary to consider and harmonize with international standards for fireworks and firecrackers.
2. The perfection of fireworks and firecracker standards
The standardization of fireworks and firecrackers is the basic work to ensure the sustainable and healthy development of the industry. It is a technical support for industrial innovation and industrial upgrading, and it is also an important means to deal with technical barriers to the export of fireworks and firecrackers. At present, fireworks and firecrackers face the complex situation of tightening policies and markets. At the same time, they also usher in multiple opportunities such as market redistribution, industrial depth adjustment, and increasingly detailed division of labor. This will promote industrial transformation and upgrading, and increase product safety and environmental quality level is the development of the industry. Faced with major issues, the standardization of fireworks and firecrackers is particularly important at present.
At present, the improvement of fireworks and firecracker standards should mainly proceed from the following aspects:
The first is to amend important mandatory national standards as soon as possible, including: GB 10631-2013 "Fireworks and Firecrackers Safety and Quality", GB 11652-2012 "Fireworks and Firecrackers Operation Safety Technical Regulations", GB 50161-2009 "Fireworks and Firecrackers Engineering Design Safety Regulations", GB 24284-2009 "large fireworks fireworks safety regulations" four important basic standards;
The second is to improve the supporting recommended standards. With the consolidation of mandatory national standards, most of the mandatory standards will be changed to recommended national standards. At present, this part of the work also needs to be completed as soon as possible so as to promote the revision of mandatory national standards;
The third is to encourage the fireworks and firecrackers associations to formulate group standards. The new standardization law gives the group a standard legal status. Each fireworks and firecracker association should actively develop group standards and promote the healthy and stable development of the industry.
Four times to assist more enterprises in formulating enterprise standards, enterprise standards can speed up the company's own structural adjustment and product upgrades, promote the industry's technological progress, gain a leading position in the fierce market competition and maintain competitive advantages;
The fifth is to increase the implementation of standards. From the perspective of breadth and depth, we will increase the standard of publicity and execution so that the industry can truly become familiar with standards, understand standards, and use standards.