The following describes the relevant regulations and management methods for allowing the use of fireworks and firecrackers abroad.
Korea: Strict legislation
The Koreans also passed the Lunar New Year, but there was no custom of setting off firecrackers. During the festival, they spent their time in peace and tranquility. Not only the Spring Festival, Mid-Autumn Festival and other big folk festivals are no exception. In recent years, with the improvement of living standards, in order to promote leisure activities or increase the festive atmosphere, the number of fireworks and firecrackers has increased. However, due to strict management, there are few accidents such as explosions, fires, personal injuries and the like.
The main practice of South Korea is to promptly legislate, follow the rules and eliminate hidden dangers. As early as 1984, South Korea formulated the "Management Law for Guns, Swords, and Gunpowders", and according to changes in the situation, it was revised and supplemented several times to put fireworks and firecrackers into the track of legal management. According to the law, strict penalties are imposed.
The first is import. There are very few manufacturers of fireworks and firecrackers in Korea, and most of the fireworks and firecrackers are imported from China. South Korea stipulates that importers must apply to the police chief for filing in the jurisdiction, and only after they have been approved can they import. At the time of import, a "safety valve" is set up for filtration, that is, through the specification inspection, fireworks and firecrackers that do not meet the safety indicators and have a large hidden danger are kept out of the country. The main measures taken have two aspects: 1. Control the weight of gunpowder. If the amount of gunpowder for rotating fireworks is not more than 4 grams, the whistle-drilling fireworks should not exceed 2 grams, and the single-shot and bursting type of fire-fighting fireworks should not exceed 10 grams and 15 grams respectively, and the inner diameter of the cylinder must be Within 1 cm. 2. Control product performance. For example, the length of the fireworks spray shall not exceed 1.8 meters, the burning time of the rotating fireworks shall not exceed 10 seconds, the maximum lift of the drill-type fireworks shall not exceed 15 meters, and the explosion sound of the firecrackers shall not exceed 85 decibels. Those who exceed the standard can not be imported, which reduces the hidden dangers of safety accidents from the source.
The second is sales. Stationery stores that sell fireworks and firecrackers must be filed in the District Police Department beforehand and receive regular and irregular security checks. If the weight of the sold fireworks exceeds 500 kg and the firecracker exceeds 250 kg, it must be declared. All fireworks and firecrackers must be marked with the origin, manufacturer, specific specifications, date of manufacture, usage and precautions, and indicate the effective contact number of the manufacturer or importer so that they can be contacted in the event of a safety incident. When selling fireworks and firecrackers to children and other people who do not understand the instructions, they must be responsible for specifying the method of discharge and precautions. Fireworks and firecrackers that have not been sold shall be strictly kept in accordance with relevant regulations. Sellers who violate the regulations must bear the corresponding responsibility in the event of a security incident.
The third is usage. Formulate strict fireworks and firecracker discharge codes, widely publicize and supervise compliance. For example, it is stipulated that the place of discharge must be at a certain distance from the house and away from all kinds of flammable and explosive materials; children must be led by adults to discharge fireworks and firecrackers, and children are not allowed to discharge themselves; they cannot be discharged in the crowd, and they cannot be discharged to others; In order to increase the explosive force and seek stimulation, the firecrackers will be fired and discharged; fire-fighting tools and firefighters must be prepared around the centralized discharge place and large-scale fireworks. At the same time, it is clearly stipulated that public facilities, key buildings and beaches are prohibited areas. In order to avoid disturbing people, some places also stipulate nighttime bans.
On the one hand, South Korea has vigorously strengthened publicity and education, and fully provided various information to encourage the nationals to establish a safety concept and a sense of law-abiding, consciously abide by laws and regulations, and on the other hand, fully strengthen law enforcement, and violations must be corrected. Imports, sellers and distributors who violate the "Manipulation of Guns, Swords and Gunpowders" shall be punished by imprisonment for 10 years or a fine of 20 million won, respectively. At the same time, it is proposed to adopt the victim insurance system, stipulate that the production of fireworks and firecrackers, importers must join the liability insurance, and timely compensation in the event of a safety injury.
US: Regulatory education is the first
In the 50 states of the United States, there are laws on the discharge of fireworks and firecrackers. Among them, 39 states and the capital, Washington, DC, are allowed to discharge under the conditions of the relevant federal laws. Five states only allow certain types of fireworks to be fired, while in New York, New Jersey. Fireworks and firecrackers are completely banned in five states, including Delaware, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts.
Americans like to set off fireworks, but firecrackers like two kickers can hardly be seen. In each state where fireworks and firecrackers are allowed to be fired, due to historical customs and other reasons, the legal regulations are also very different. Generally, no one is allowed to sell products other than those specified, and some states have clearly defined the size and gunpowder content of the products. For example, Virginia, located in the eastern United States, allows the burning of slow-burning fireworks, suspended and ground-based fireworks, and fountain fireworks. In Washington, DC, close to the capital of Virginia, although the city is densely built, although slow-burning fireworks can be fired, the length of the fireworks can't exceed 20 inches. For any explosion during the discharge (such as fireworks), it is absolutely forbidden. Although the District of Columbia is only separated from Virginia by a river, it prohibits the firing of ground-based rotating fireworks. Any fireworks with fuzes on the side of the fireworks are also banned. In addition, due to the endless variety of fireworks, the fireworks and firecrackers that the Washington Fire Department Director identified as endangering the public were also banned.
The Fireworks Association in all regions of the United States pays great attention to the education of citizens. In some states, there are also laws and regulations on fireworks and firecrackers. If it is not allowed to throw fireworks to motor vehicles, fireworks should not be fired within 300 meters of teaching, hospitals, schools and public buildings. The American Fireworks Association and the US Fireworks Safety Committee have focused on strengthening education for the public. The US Fireworks Safety Committee has published the essentials for selecting and lighting fireworks on its own website; some fireworks associations have also promoted education for the public by organizing knowledge lectures and issuing brochures. The way to set off firecrackers is mostly concentrated, timed, and managed by a special person, so as to prevent unburned firecrackers from being taken away by children. The firecrackers after the firecrackers are mostly responsible for the dischargers. If you do not clean the time, a hundred-dollar ticket will be sent to the door.
To operate a fireworks trade, you need to apply for a storage permit, a sales license, and a high-insurance insurance. In Washington, DC, the amount of insurance ranges from $1 million to $3 million. Although the United States imports a lot of fireworks from China, most of the local management rights in the United States are controlled by some Italian family businesses. They have been operating the fireworks business for generations, and they have also divided the sites in detail to ensure that they do not interfere with each other.
EU: Standardization of import approval
Many countries in the European Union are consumers of fireworks and firecrackers, and they are also pure importers. During the National Day, Christmas, New Year or various major events, the countries of the European Union have set off fireworks and firecrackers to express their joy and customs. In recent years, with the increase of immigrants, especially Asian immigrants, the fireworks and firecrackers in their gathering area have become an indispensable item for celebrating traditional festivals, so the consumption of fireworks and firecrackers is increasing in Europe.
The fireworks and firecrackers sold in the EU countries are mainly from China. The EU countries have made detailed regulations on the import approval, marketing, and discharge requirements for fireworks and firecrackers, and they have been included in the standardized management.
The way in which EU countries manage fireworks and firecrackers is basically the same, mainly divided into four parts:
1. Import approval and agency system. Since fireworks and firecrackers are flammable and explosive commodities, there is a certain risk in the process of transportation, storage and discharge. Therefore, the approval right of importation has been controlled by government departments or professional institutions entrusted by government departments. According to the classification of imported products, the administrative departments involved in the examination and approval are generally trade, industrial, dangerous goods or defense industry. If Spain wants to apply to the Ministry of Industry, the risk level higher than the fourth level needs to be approved by the Ministry of National Defense; Norway's fireworks import approval authority is approved by the nationally recognized “Fire and Explosion Protection Association” in accordance with the provisions of the “Explosives Law” of the country. Imports of fireworks and firecrackers in the Netherlands, Belgium and other countries must involve domestic agents. All fireworks and firecrackers imported into the EU countries must pass the discharge test before they can pass the examination and approval.
Second, imported products must comply with the relevant product classification regulations. Spain, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and other EU countries have clear classification criteria for fireworks and firecrackers, mainly based on the technical indicators such as the degree of danger of fireworks and firecrackers, explosive composition, weight or volume. Spain is divided into 8 levels. The first three levels are low-risk. They can be discharged indoors, in courtyards or in smaller spaces. The Ministry of Industry approves imports. Ordinary stores can engage in marketing activities after obtaining a business license. Grades 4 to 8 are of a high level of danger and require approval by the Ministry of National Defense and are operated and discharged by professional companies. The product classification standards also provide detailed regulations on the packaging, transportation and storage of fireworks and firecrackers.
Third, the scope and time of business. Merchants in EU countries still have to follow certain specific rules in marketing activities after obtaining the operating license for fireworks. If the merchant must have a safe storage space and corresponding fire and explosion-proof emergency measures. Under normal circumstances, the time for selling fireworks and firecrackers is only required to start in the first three days or one week before the festival; merchants may not sell dangerous fireworks and firecrackers to minors under the age of 18.
Fourth, strictly control the time and place of setting off.
In general, community governments and regulatory agencies in EU countries will issue notices to residents when they are nearing the festival, specifying the specific time and place where fireworks and firecrackers are allowed to be fired in the area. As one of the festival celebrations organized by local government agencies, it will also cooperate with some open-air markets, entertainment, music and dance activities. It will not only bring people who are watching and watching in a specific place, but also celebrate the festive celebration and warmth. The atmosphere also reflects the humanistic spirit of government agencies and the good desire to actively integrate with the people, and also provides some vendors with selling points. What's more important is that it can enable professionals to fully guarantee the good order and personal safety when setting off fireworks and firecrackers, which is conducive to environmental protection and sanitation.
For companies, merchants or individuals who cannot comply with relevant laws and regulations, EU countries have strict penalties. If the violation is based on the severity of the violation, the business license can be revoked; the company can be forced to stop commercial activities, allowing the merchant to close the store for less than 6 months, or impose a fine of several hundred to tens of thousands of euros. For the management of fireworks and firecrackers for large-scale celebrations outside the festival, such as weddings, company and store opening ceremony, the EU countries implement the principle of being organized and implemented by professional companies, and consumers can easily find these companies on the Internet.